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At ETH Zürich , Niklaus Wirth and his colleagues had also been investigating such topics as data abstraction and modular programming although this had been in common use in the s or earlier.
Modula-2 included both, and their succeeding design, Oberon , included a distinctive approach to object orientation, classes, and such.
Adding these features to languages that were not initially designed for them often led to problems with compatibility and maintainability of code.
More recently, a number of languages have emerged that are primarily object-oriented, but that are also compatible with procedural methodology.
Two such languages are Python and Ruby. Probably the most commercially important recent object-oriented languages are Java , developed by Sun Microsystems , as well as C and Visual Basic.
NET VB. NET , both designed for Microsoft's. NET platform. Each of these two frameworks shows, in its own way, the benefit of using OOP by creating an abstraction from implementation.
NET and C support cross-language inheritance, allowing classes defined in one language to subclass classes defined in the other language.
Simula is generally accepted as being the first language with the primary features of an object-oriented language. It was created for making simulation programs , in which what came to be called objects were the most important information representation.
Smalltalk to is another early example, and the one with which much of the theory of OOP was developed. Concerning the degree of object orientation, the following distinctions can be made:.
In recent years, object-oriented programming has become especially popular in dynamic programming languages.
Another scripting language that takes this approach is Lua. The messages that flow between computers to request services in a client-server environment can be designed as the linearizations of objects defined by class objects known to both the client and the server.
For example, a simple linearized object would consist of a length field, a code point identifying the class, and a data value. A more complex example would be a command consisting of the length and code point of the command and values consisting of linearized objects representing the command's parameters.
Each such command must be directed by the server to an object whose class or superclass recognizes the command and is able to provide the requested service.
Clients and servers are best modeled as complex object-oriented structures. Distributed Data Management Architecture DDM took this approach and used class objects to define objects at four levels of a formal hierarchy:.
The initial version of DDM defined distributed file services. Challenges of object-oriented design are addressed by several approaches. Most common is known as the design patterns codified by Gamma et al.
More broadly, the term " design patterns " can be used to refer to any general, repeatable, solution pattern to a commonly occurring problem in software design.
Some of these commonly occurring problems have implications and solutions particular to object-oriented development. It is intuitive to assume that inheritance creates a semantic " is a " relationship, and thus to infer that objects instantiated from subclasses can always be safely used instead of those instantiated from the superclass.
This intuition is unfortunately false in most OOP languages, in particular in all those that allow mutable objects. Subtype polymorphism as enforced by the type checker in OOP languages with mutable objects cannot guarantee behavioral subtyping in any context.
Behavioral subtyping is undecidable in general, so it cannot be implemented by a program compiler. Class or object hierarchies must be carefully designed, considering possible incorrect uses that cannot be detected syntactically.
This issue is known as the Liskov substitution principle. Along with exploring the capabilities and pitfalls of object-oriented programming, it describes 23 common programming problems and patterns for solving them.
As of April , the book was in its 36th printing. Both object-oriented programming and relational database management systems RDBMSs are extremely common in software today [update].
Since relational databases don't store objects directly though some RDBMSs have object-oriented features to approximate this , there is a general need to bridge the two worlds.
The problem of bridging object-oriented programming accesses and data patterns with relational databases is known as object-relational impedance mismatch.
There are a number of approaches to cope with this problem, but no general solution without downsides. OOP can be used to associate real-world objects and processes with digital counterparts.
However, not everyone agrees that OOP facilitates direct real-world mapping see Criticism section or that real-world mapping is even a worthy goal; Bertrand Meyer argues in Object-Oriented Software Construction  that a program is not a model of the world but a model of some part of the world; "Reality is a cousin twice removed".
At the same time, some principal limitations of OOP have been noted. However, Niklaus Wirth who popularized the adage now known as Wirth's law : "Software is getting slower more rapidly than hardware becomes faster" said of OOP in his paper, "Good Ideas through the Looking Glass", "This paradigm closely reflects the structure of systems 'in the real world', and it is therefore well suited to model complex systems with complex behaviours"  contrast KISS principle.
OOP was developed to increase the reusability and maintainability of source code. With the increasing relevance of parallel hardware and multithreaded coding , developing transparent control flow becomes more important, something hard to achieve with OOP.
Responsibility-driven design defines classes in terms of a contract, that is, a class should be defined around a responsibility and the information that it shares.
This is contrasted by Wirfs-Brock and Wilkerson with data-driven design , where classes are defined around the data-structures that must be held.
The authors hold that responsibility-driven design is preferable. Luca Cardelli has claimed that OOP code is "intrinsically less efficient" than procedural code, that OOP can take longer to compile, and that OOP languages have "extremely poor modularity properties with respect to class extension and modification", and tend to be extremely complex.
The problem with object-oriented languages is they've got all this implicit environment that they carry around with them.
You wanted a banana but what you got was a gorilla holding the banana and the entire jungle. A study by Potok et al. Christopher J.
OOP languages have no unique strengths, and inflict a heavy burden of unneeded complexity. Alexander Stepanov compares object orientation unfavourably to generic programming : .
I find OOP technically unsound. It attempts to decompose the world in terms of interfaces that vary on a single type.
I find OOP philosophically unsound. It claims that everything is an object. Paul Graham has suggested that OOP's popularity within large companies is due to "large and frequently changing groups of mediocre programmers".
According to Graham, the discipline imposed by OOP prevents any one programmer from "doing too much damage".
Leo Brodie has suggested a connection between the standalone nature of objects and a tendency to duplicate code  in violation of the don't repeat yourself principle  of software development.
Steve Yegge noted that, as opposed to functional programming : . Object Oriented Programming puts the Nouns first and foremost.
Why would you go to such lengths to put one part of speech on a pedestal? Why should one kind of concept take precedence over another?
It's not as if OOP has suddenly made verbs less important in the way we actually think. It's a strangely skewed perspective.
Rich Hickey , creator of Clojure , described object systems as overly simplistic models of the real world.
He emphasized the inability of OOP to model time properly, which is getting increasingly problematic as software systems become more concurrent. Eric S.
Raymond , a Unix programmer and open-source software advocate, has been critical of claims that present object-oriented programming as the "One True Solution", and has written that object-oriented programming languages tend to encourage thickly layered programs that destroy transparency.
Rob Pike , a programmer involved in the creation of UTF-8 and Go , has called object-oriented programming "the Roman numerals of computing"  and has said that OOP languages frequently shift the focus from data structures and algorithms to types.
Objects are the run-time entities in an object-oriented system. They may represent a person, a place, a bank account, a table of data, or any item that the program has to handle.
There have been several attempts at formalizing the concepts used in object-oriented programming. The following concepts and constructs have been used as interpretations of OOP concepts:.
For example, some definitions focus on mental activities, and some on program structuring. One of the simpler definitions is that OOP is the act of using "map" data structures or arrays that can contain functions and pointers to other maps, all with some syntactic and scoping sugar on top.
Inheritance can be performed by cloning the maps sometimes called "prototyping". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Programming paradigm based on the concept of objects. For other meanings of object-oriented, see Object-orientation. For a list of object-oriented programming languages, see List of object-oriented programming languages.
See also: Comparison of programming languages object-oriented programming and List of object-oriented programming terms.
Object-oriented programming is more than just classes and objects; it's a whole programming paradigm based around [ sic ] objects data structures that contain data fields and methods.
It is essential to understand this; using classes to organize a bunch of unrelated methods together is not object orientation.
UML notation for a class. This Button class has variables for data, and functions. Through inheritance a subclass can be created as subset of the Button class.
Objects are instances of a class. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: List of object-oriented programming languages.
See also: Object-oriented design. Main article: Design pattern computer science. Main articles: Object-relational impedance mismatch , Object-relational mapping , and Object database.
See also: Formal semantics of programming languages. Computer programming portal. International Journal of General Systems: — Pearson Education Inc.
The Quarks of Object-Oriented Development. A survey of nearly 40 years of computing literature which identified a number of fundamental concepts found in the large majority of definitions of OOP, in descending order of popularity: Inheritance, Object, Class, Encapsulation, Method, Message Passing, Polymorphism, and Abstraction.
Lists: Dynamic dispatch, abstraction, subtype polymorphism, and inheritance. Lists encapsulation, inheritance, and dynamic dispatch.
Types and Programming Languages. MIT Press. Software Engineering with Ada. Addison Wesley. Perhaps the greatest strength of an object-oriented approach to development is that it offers a mechanism that captures a model of the real world.
Retrieved 11 December Object Oriented Software Engineering. March Computation Center and Research Laboratory : 88f. Archived from the original PDF on 17 July In the local M.
LISP 1. Retrieved 11 February Technical Report No. Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 13 May Retrieved 3 March From Object-Orientation to Formal Methods.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Bibcode : tclp. Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 13 September Visual FoxPro 3.
Interoperability Happens. Archived from the original on 4 July Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 3 July Retrieved 4 July Intel Software Network.
Archived from the original on 10 October Existential Type Blog. Retrieved 5 December ACM Comput. Retrieved 21 April Peter Seibel, ed.
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